RDP connection is often broken into 9 stages:

1.Attachment for Initiation

2.Primary Settings Transfer

3.Channel Connection

4. Security Services

5.Secure Settings Exchange


7.Connection Finalization

8.Basic Input and Output

9.Channels in RDP

10.RDP Security


1.Attachment for Initiation

The RDP connection is initiated by the client using an X.224 Connection request PDU. This packet contains an RDP Negotiation Request that holds a couple of connection flags and therefore the security protocols supported by the client. Those security protocols are often in one among two categories:

Standard RDP Security

* The default of RSA’s RC4 encryption Enhanced RDP Security


* CredSSP (TLS + NTLM/Kerberos)


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2.Primary Settings Transfer

At this stage, basic settings are exchanged between the client and therefore the server using an MCS Connect Initial PDU and an MCS Connect Response PDU (respectively). These settings (both from the client and therefore the server) include:

* Core Data – RDP Version, Desktop resolution, color depth, keyboard information, hostname, client software information (product ID, build number), etc.

* Security Data – Encryption methods, size of session keys, server random (used later to make session keys) and server’s certificate (some of this is often only relevant when using Standard RDP Security).

Network Data – Information about the requested and allocated virtual channels. This contains the number of channels and an array of specific virtual channels. The client requests the precise sort of channels within the request, and therefore the server supplies the particular channel IDs within the response.

Business person logging in to his laptop

3.Channel Connection

After establishing the list of virtual channels which will be utilized in the RDP session, here comes the stage at which each individual channel connection is formed. This features a few sub-stages:

1. MCS Erect Domain Request – Height within the MCS Domain. Since RDP doesn’t cash in of advanced MCS topologies, it’ll be 0.

2. MCS Attach User Request – request for a User Channel ID

3. MCS Attach User Confirm – ID of the User Channel

4. Security Services

Every client sends a Security Exchange PDU including the client random encrypted with the server’s public key. The client and server then use the random numbers (both from the essential Settings Exchange’s Security Data and therefore the Security Exchange PDU) to make session encryption keys.

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5.Secure Settings Exchange

At now, the client sends an encrypted Customer Info PDU including information about supported sorts of compression, user domain, username, password, working directory, etc


This stage is meant to permit authorized users to attach to a terminal server. that’s to support quite 2 simultaneous connections (which is that the default for Windows RDP Server to a server. this needs purchasing a license from Microsoft.

7.Connection Finalization

The client and therefore the server exchange a couple of sorts of PDUs to finalize the connection. All those PDUs originate from the client (PDU are often sent one after the opposite without expecting a response). The PDUs are:

* Client/Server Synchronize PDU – wont to synchronize user identifiers between the client the server.

* Client/Server Control PDU (Cooperate) – Both the client and therefore the server sends this PDU to point shared control over the session.

* Client Control PDU (Request/Grant Control) – Client sends the request for control, the server grants it.

* Persistent Key List PDU/PDUs (optional) – The client sends the server an inventory of keys, each key identifies a cached bitmap. this permits the bitmap cache to be persistent (as against being limited to the lifetime of the connection).


During the lifetime of the connection, the client and therefore the server exchange basic input/output data. The client is sending the input and therefore the server sends the output.

Input Data – This contains mouse and keyboard information, also as periodic synchronization (e.g. NAM_LOCK / CAPS_LOCK keys state)

Output Data – the elemental output data contains bitmap images of the user’s session on the server.


9.Channels in RDP

In RDP, most of the info is being transported through different channels (MCS Layer). There are two main sorts of channels: Static Virtual Channels and Dynamic Virtual Channels.

Static Virtual Channels (SVC)

SVCs allow communication between different client and server components over the most RDP data connection. there’s a maximum of 31 Static Virtual Channels per connection and every channel acts as an independent data stream.

* I/O Channel

* Message Channel

* User Channel

* Server Channel

Extension SVCs are identified by an 8-byte name, for example:

* rdpdr – Filesystem extension. Allows the redirection of access from the server to the client filing system.

* rdpsnd – Sound output extension.

* cliprdr – Clipboard extension. Allows sharing the clipboard between the client and therefore the server.

Dynamic Virtual Channels (DVC)

Since the Static Virtual Channels number is restricted to 31, RDP also supports Dynamic Virtual Channels. Dynamic Virtual Channels are transported over one specific Static Virtual Channel – DRDYNVC. Those channels are dynamic since you’ll create and destroy them at any stage of the connection lifetime (after initialization). Developers can create extensions that will transport data over a Dynamic Virtual Channel quite easily. Common uses for DVCs are audio input (client -> server), PnP redirection, graphics rendering, echo channel, video redirection

10.RDP Security

As mentioned briefly before, the safety of the RDP protocol is often one among two types:

Standard Security

Traffic is encrypted using RSA’s RC4 encryption algorithm, using client and server random values that are exchanged during the essential Settings Exchange that introduces the connection initialization.

Enhanced Security

This type of security enables RDP to outsource all security operations (encryption/decryption, integrity checks, etc.) to an external security protocol. this will be one among the following:

* TLS 1.0/1.1/1.2

* CredSSP


the client and server choose a security protocol, do the external security protocol handshake and from now on all the opposite stages of the RDP connection are going to be encapsulated within that external security protocol & you can buy a Cheap Rdp At Low prices.

The key advantage of using RDP Enhanced Security is that it enables 

Network Level Authentication (NLA) refers to the usage of CredSSP to authenticate the user before the initiation of the RDP connection. 


This enables the server to dedicate resources only to authenticated users. In case of a critical vulnerability within the RDP protocol, NLA can limit the exploitation of this vulnerability to authenticated users only.


As this was an introductory article on RDP, I attempted to distill many pages worth of RDP documentation into a digestible and fairly short piece of data, so there are many things I didn’t cover here. Our goal was to bring the reader to the purpose of getting a basic understanding of the protocol, also because of the ability to continue reading and researching further about their specific topics of interest. We also Provide Rdp Related Services like admin RDP.

We started this blog by discussing how RDP may be a complex protocol with many extensions. Due to its complexity, the potential of finding new critical bugs remains high and that we have to be prepared to seek out and fix those before they might be abused within the wild, or have the power to reply quickly and minimize the damage of potential future vulnerabilities.

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